With ANZAC Day being today I thought that I would post something today with a military flavour. I came across this article and found it quite fascinating. Tragically the war lasted until 11 November 1918 and killed and injured millions of people on both sides. Lest we forget.
Source: EUROPE UNANIMOUS—WAR CAN'T LAST LONG (1915, October 3). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 22. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article120801611
EUROPE UNANIMOUS ---WAR CAN'T LAST LONG
Leaders Differ Widely, However, on Time, Victors, and Reasons
THE most famous statesmen, militarists, educators, political economists, politicians, writers and other leaders of thought in the warring nations of Europe were asked 'How soon do you think the present war will end, and how do you think it will end?' Here are some of the replies. Practically all admit that the war cannot go on much longer, as all the Powers involved are threatened with economic exhaustion. But there unanimity ceases :
By LORD SYDENHAM,
Former Governor of Bombay.
LONDON. August 7 - In the west, since October, the combatants have faced each other in lines of trenches more than 500 miles in length, which have been steadily strengthened. Attacks and counter-attacks have led to immense losses on both sides, but neither has achieved a strategic advantage. In the east waves of men have advanced and retired, also suffering huge losses, and the Austro-Germans are now striving to break the Russian main armies so as to shorten their too widely extended front, economise the forces necessary for the defense of their territories, and thus set free troops for other needs. On no part of the vast theatre of war have decisive results been obtained. Resources and time are on the side of the Allies if they can overtake the organisation which Germany long ago perfected. Europe is becoming sick of the appalling slaughter-already far exceeding 4,000,000. At best long years of sever economic stress lies before all the belligerent Powers. At the worst there is bankruptcy, but every month of the war brings industrial Germany nearer utter disaster, as her sober thinkers are well aware of.
By SIR GILBERT PARKER.
Author, and Member of House of Commons.
LONDON. August 7. - The length of the war cannot be based alone on past progress. A great many things may hasten the end, and a great many more may make it more distant. Germany may fail in getting sufficient cotton and copper for the manufacture of munitions. Her finance must fail before that of Great Britain since she must carry the burden of Turkey and some portion of the burden of Austria-Hungary upon her shoulders. She has no export trade, and therefore is leaning absolutely upon herself. She is drinking her own blood. Also there is a possibility of neutrals coming in to tip the balance against her. If by any chance, the United States entered the arena, the end would come with great swiftness, not alone because of the support given, but because of the mural effect this would have on the other neutral countries. I think the war will last another year or thereabouts, but prophecy is a poor business when paid by results, so I will not attempt to discount my hopes for the ready cash of optimism.
By SIR EDWARD GREY.
British Minister of Foreign Affairs.
LONDON. August 7.- The reasons which led Great Britain to declare war and the ideals for which is fighting have been frequently set forth. They are fully understood in America. I do not feel, therefore, there is any need to repeat them now. I am quite contented to leave the rights and wrongs of the causes and conduct of the war to the judgement of the American people. The United Kingdom, and the entire Empire, together with their gallant Allies, have never been more determined than they are to-day to prosecute this war to a successful conclusion, which will result in honorable and enduring peace based on liberty and not burdensome militarism.
By GUSTAVE HERVL,
Socialist Leader and Converted Anti-Militarist.
PARIS, August 7.- I am totally unable to predict the probable duration of the war. What I can say, however, is that peace will not be made until the objects which induced French Socialists to take part in the war have been fully attained. We would never have gone to the front if Germany had not forced the war upon France, Russia, and Belgium, if she had not compelled us to wade our knees in blood. Prior to the war we were so strongly in favor of peace that we were willing that even Alsace and Lorraine, if granted home rule, should remain separated from France. Now there can be no peace until the liberties of all minor nationalities are assured.
By MR. H. ASQUITH,
Prime Minister of Great Britain.
LONDON, August 7.- I have been asked to send a message to the United States of America at the end of the first year of war. The reasons why we are fighting are known in America. The world has judged and will judge, not our words, but our actions. The question to-day is not one of our hopes or our calculations, but our duties. Our duty, which we shall fulfill, is to continue to the end in the course which we have chosen and 'to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace.'
By FREDERICK MASSON,
Academician and Noted Napoleonic Historian.
PARIS. August 7. - France will conquer or perish. Nothing can change this resolution. She gives unstintedly of all her resources of money, material and men. Even though it require two more Winter campaigns, we shall continue until we have won such a victory as to exhaust the enemy and incapacitate him for at least half a century. That was the fate Germany wished to impose on us at the Frankfort peace. She establishes the rule, and must now be subjected to it.
By COMMANDER ANTONIO MONZILLI,
Editor of the 'Economista d'Italia,' leading financial daily of Italy.
ROME, August 7.- It is now clear the war will end under the pressure of economical factors. The high standard of living and intense economic movement exclude Austria and Germany standing any longer than a year of privations, sufferings, disorders and immense damages of the war. Even he who admires the perfect German organisation and other splendid qualities must admit that her economic preparation, though great, never contemplated such a long war. Germany and Austria are almost completely isolated from a financial and commercial viewpoint. Incidents have closed to them even the American financial market. It is my conviction that visions of the grave dangers in these conditions will dispose Germany and Austria to make peace sooner than generally believed.
By HENRI DE WIART,
Belgian Minister of Justice.
PARIS, August 7.- After twelve months of warfare I say most emphatically that Belgium will not abandon her noble struggle to defend her rights until they are completely restored. However great my country's past sacrifices have been, she is unswervingly resolved to make any further sacrifices that may be necessary. In this war Belgium is proud to represent the respect of the pledged word, which is the very basis of civilisation. It is extremely comforting to us to receive the unstinted sympathy of all honest people, even in neutral countries. The sympathy of the great American Republic has been manifested by generosity without example in the world's history, and for which Belgium is forever grateful.
By JOSEPH REINACH,
Military Historian, whose critiques under the pen-name of 'Polybius' have been recognised as the finest French contribution to war literature.
PARIS, August 7.- Several million men killed, other millions mutilated, countless towns and villages ravaged, enormous heaps of ruins- that is the price Europe has paid because on July 31, 1914, the German Emperor disdainfully rejected the British Government's proposal to hold a conference. The Kaiser believed a rapid victory was possible. To-day it is slipping further from his grasp. The Allies are more than ever resolved not to lay down arms until Europe is freed from Germanic tyranny.
By MARQUIS ANTONIO DIVITI DEMARCO,
Professor Science of Finances at the University of Rome, and Parliamentary Deputy.
ROME, August 7.- In my opinion it will not end so soon as many think or hope. First of all, because we want to settle the big political and military questions in order to insure a long and lasting peace. This is impossible until Germany and Austria are beaten. But we require time to organise and to prove our strength. This, too. means a long war. The war will end when Germany and Austria are convinced that their long-dreamed-of hegemony has been crushed by the strong will and military strength of the free nations of Europe.
By SIR HIRAM MAXIM,
LONDON, August 7. - I think by midwinter the Germans will sue for peace. If, however, the United States takes a hand in the game the war will be over by Christmas.
By OTTO VON GLASENAPP,
Acting-President of the Berlin Reichsbank.
BERLIN, August 7. - I cannot tell how long the war will last. I am sure, though, Germany will win. At any rate, Germany will be able to hold out. Financially and Economically our situation is better than the enemy's. So far there has been no difficulty in obtaining money for conducting the war, and there will be no difficulty in the future either. To-day 98 per cent. of the second war loan has been paid, although only 85 per cent. was due. The English sea warfare has been a benefit in disguise for Germany. It drove the entire German industry into the Fatherland's service. Germany now stands on her own feet, independent from the outside world, thanks to Germany's science and industry. The gold reserve in the Reichsbank is now 2,000,393,000,000 marks, or over 1,000,000,000 more than before the outbreak of war. This is much better than France's and England's showing.
By GENERAL CARLO CORSI,
Military Critic of the Rome 'Tribuna.'
ROME, August 7. - In the present war we find ourselves on one side of the front an offensive, powerfully organised and prepared on every field. On the other side we find power and number, but without offensive spirit. Germany's blow having failed to obtain a decision on the remaining other hand, and surrounded by a number, the struggle cannot but degenerate into a war of exhaustion of men, materials and finances. Owing to the power of endurance deriving to Germany from her offensivity, strong through her preparation, as opposed to the Allies' power in men, material, finance and morale, the struggle will be long, all the more because, considering the mutual ends of the belligerents, exhaustion of either side must be absolute.
By LORD WEARDALE,
Chairman of the British-American Peace Centenary Commission.
LONDON, August 7.- It is difficult for any one whose life has been given to the consideration of methods to preserve peace to write anything of value on the progress of the awful war. The present moment does not seem encouraging. Colossal forces are in deadly conflict and more prodigious ones are in preparation for the fray. It would appear as if exhaustion, military or economic, or more probably both together, will alone provide a solution, and we can but pray that Providence will see fit to accelerate the coming of that moment.
By GENERAL BERTHAUT,
Ex-Member of the French War Council.
PARIS, August 7.- France's Army is now in the zenith of its power. The Germans failed to conquer us a year ago by a surprise attack when we were unprepared, and it is quite impossible for them to break through our lines now. We have an unlimited supply of men, money, guns, and ammunition. Our statesmen mean every word they say when they declare we will not sheathe the sword until Prussian militarism has been crushed.
By MAJOR ERNST MORAHT,
Military Critic of the Berlin 'Tageblatt.'
BERLIN, August 7.- The Germans have every reason at the end of the first year of war to consider their sacrifices in blood and treasure have been rewarded. We are well prepared for a continuance of the war. Our nation still possesses determination to conquer and to make the necessary sacrifices.
By J. ST. LOE STRACHEY,
Editor of the London 'Spectator.'
LONDON, August 7.- The war will be over before the end of February next - that is, roughly, seven months from now. I base my guess upon the fact that, owing to the attrition of modern war, the armies waste at a rate of about 17 per cent. a month. If the Germans and Austrians have now about 5,000,000 men on the firing line, they will want 5,000,000 more in six months to produce drafts. This means that at the end of six months they will have no drafts left. I venture to say that in six months Germany and Austria will not have enough men to secure them from defeat. Germany and Austria are now in the position of a vast besieged city - a city, however, so well equipped, so powerful, that on the eastern flank itcan make a sortie on so tremendous a scale as to constitute an invasion of the enemy's country.
By MAURICE BARRES,
Academician and President of the League of Patriots.
PARIS, August 7.- Victory will certainly be ours, but when, I am not bold enough to predict. The Allies' peace must be a peace that will render back to France not only Alsace and Lorraine, but all the territory north of Alsace and Lorraine- that is to say, all the territory in Germany west of the Rhine must go to France or Belgium. During the revolution, the committee of public safety declared the only guarantee of peace between France and Germany was to maintain the ancient Gallic frontier on the Rhine. That slogan must be ours now if we are to safeguard our children's children from another German aggression. There will be no difficulty in arranging a settlement with Belgium.
By GENERAL BONNALL,
Ex-Member of the French General Staff.
PARIS, August 7.- Hostilities have taken the form of a year of patience. The side that conserves its strength while its opponent is expending his, and strikes when the blow will have the greatest effect, will win. Those are Joffre's tactics, and they will bring him victory by the end of the year, perhaps. I refuse to believe Germany will be able to withstand the tremendous strain much longer. She will positively have to shorten her line on the western front shortly. It is greatly to be hoped Constantinople falls soon, because such event would considerably shorten the war.
By ALFRED CAPUS,
Academician and Famous Editor.
PARIS, August 7.- Taking all factors into account, I would say Germany is going to make one more big effort to break our lines. She cannot stand another Winter campaign, so the Kaiser intend to stake all on a tremendous final throw. He will fail again. It is my opinion the last big battle will be fought about December, but millions of men will remain months longer under arms before Germany accepts the Allies' peace.
By SIEGMUDT SUSMAN,
Merchant and Banker.
BERLIN, August 7.- We can stand to fight this war indefinitely. Germany can stand it longer than any other country. All the money we spend here drifts back into our own pockets. Any other State, could not suffer being shut off from the rest of the world. Germany produces everything for herself. Besides, we occupy the richest part of France. There never was a pause in our business life. We go right on, war or no war. All this is due to our splendid organisation and effectiveness. We shall win the war, no matter how long it takes.